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Julia_Crystal777 2012 M11 27
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Today I would like to make a generalization to a large section. Stylistic devices-It is a conscious and intentional intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic property of a language...

Today I would like to make a generalization to a large section.

Stylistic devices-It is a conscious and intentional intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic property of a language unit (neutral or expressive) promoted to a generalized status and thus becoming a generative model.

Expressive means-Now it should be possible to define the notion of expressive means. The expressive means of a language are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms which exist in language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical and/or emotional in­tensification of the utterance.

Simile- a kind of comparison in which two things are com­pared be­cause they have something in common though they are in all other respects different. A simile states that a is like/as. Each simile consists of the following three components: 1) the thing which is compared, called the tenor; 2) the thing with which it is compared, called the vehicle; 3) link-words, such as like, as, as though, as like, such as, as … as, as if, seem. She walks like an angel. / I wandered lonely as a cloud. (Wordsworth)-  According to I. R. Galperin - lexical SDs and EMs V. A. Kukharenko it is lexico-syntactic SDs , according to Yu. M. Skrebnev’s classification- units of syntagmatic semasiology, figures of identity

Metaphor- a comparison between two things which are basically quite different without using the words like or as. While a simile only says that one thing is like another, a metaphor says that one thing is another.  Life’s but a walking shadow ... (Shakespeare Macbeth). According to I. R. Galperin-lexical SDs and EMs. V. A. Kukharenko-lexical SDs .Yu. M. Skrebnev -figures of quality, paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units

Metonymy- is a word or phrase that is used to stand in for another word. Sometimes a metonymy is chosen because it is a well-known characteristic of the word.  "He writes a fine hand." - This means that the person writes neatly or has good handwriting. According to I. R. Galperin -lexical SDs and EMs.V. A. Kukharenko -lexical SDs. Yu. M. Skrebnev - paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units.figures of quality

Synecdoche-  a type of trope, which is a figure of speech. When used in literature, a synecdoche will add to the visual imagery of the passage and enhance the reader’s experience.  " white-collar criminals". I. R. Galperin- lexical SDs and EMs . Yu. M. Skrebnev - paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units figures of quality

Antonomasia- a rhetorical for the substitution of a title, epithet, or descriptive phrase for a proper name to designate a member of a group or class. "The Mahatma" for Mohandas Gandhi.  I. R. Galperin- lexical SDs and EMs . Yu. M. Skrebnev -figures of quality paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units

Personification- a kind of metaphor in which animals, plants, inanimate objects or ab­stract ideas are represented as if they were human beings and possessed human qualities.  Justice is blind. Necessity is the mother of invention. I. R. Galperin- lexical SDs and EMs. Yu. M. Skrebnev -paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units.figures of quality

 

Hyperbole- It is pur­pose is to emphasize something or to pro­duce a humorous effect. I loved Ophelia: forty thousand brothers / Could not, with all their quantity of love / Make up my sum. According to I. R. Galperin lexical SDs and EMs.V. A. Kukharenko -lexical SDs Yu. M. Skrebnev paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units.figures of quantity.

Understatement- is a figure of speech in which there is a contrast between the description and reality. As such, understatement can be used to reflect modesty, sarcasm, derogatory or complimentary tone

Irony- saying the opposite of what you actually mean. Teacher: “You are absolutely the best class I’ve ever had.” Actual meaning: “the worst class”.  According to I. R. Galperin - lexical SDs and EMs. V. A. Kukharenko -lexical SDs .Yu. M. Skrebnev - paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units.figures of quantity

Oxymoron- a combination of contradictory words. “O hateful love! O loving hate!” / “I burn and freeze like ice.” (Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet). According to I. R. Galperin- lexical SDs and EMs. V. A. Kukharenko - lexical SDs .Yu. M. Skrebnev - units of syntagmatic semasiology (onomasiology).figures of contrast

Epithet- A rhetorical term for an adjective (or adjective phrase) used to characterize a person or thing. Sitting by his side, I watched the peaceful dawn. I. R. Galperin -lexical SDs and EMs

V. A. Kukharenko -lexical SDs .

Pun -a play on words that have a similar sound but different mean­ings. Where do you find giant snails? On the ends of giants’ fingers. I. R. Galperin  lexical SDs and EMs. V. A. Kukharenko -lexical SDs .Yu. M. Skrebnev - units of syntagmatic semasiology (onomasiology) figures of inequality

Zeugma- the use of one word in the same grammatical but different semantic relations: on one hand literal, and on the other, transferred, used for humorous effect. He took his hat and his leave. (Ch. Dickens).  I. R. Galperin -lexical SDs and EMs. V. A. Kukharenko- lexical SDs.Yu. M. Skrebnev -units of syntagmatic semasiology (onomasiology).figures of inequality

 


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