Sd and EM

CTyDeHT_AHDPey 2012 M12 2
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It was important for us to revise, to refresh and to learn different SD and EM and their classification. I think, that stylistics is a modern science and it still remains big area of investigation...

It was important for us to revise, to refresh and to learn different SD and EM and their classification. I think, that stylistics is a modern science and it still remains big area of investigation and discoveries. And all scientists “testify” upon stylistics in a different way including domestic and foreign language experts.

The first author who brought up the classification of language’s units was V.V.Vinogradov. He defined style as «socially recognized and functionally conditioned internally united totality of the ways of using, selecting and combining the means of course in the sphere of one national language or another...».  Galperin offered his definition of style is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication.»

Classification of SD and EM (Table 1)

Table - 1

SD and EM

I. R. Galperin

V. A. Kukharenko

Yu. M. Skrebnev

Epithet

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of logical and emotive meanings

lexical SDs

-

Metaphor

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of the dictionary and contextual meanings

lexical SDs

paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units

figures of quality

Simile

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of logical and nominative meanings

lexico-syntactic SDs

units of syntagmatic semasiology (onomasiology)

figures of identity

Comparison

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of logical and nominative meanings

lexico-syntactic SDs

units of syntagmatic semasiology (onomasiology)

figures of identity

Metonymy

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of the dictionary and contextual meanings

lexical SDs

paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units

figures of quality

Synecdoche

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of the dictionary and contextual meanings

 

paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units

figures of quality

Antonomasia

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of the dictionary and contextual meanings

 

paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units, or figures of replacement

figures of quality

Oxymoron

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of logical and emotive meanings

lexical SDs

units of syntagmatic semasiology

figures of contrast

Antithesis

lexical SDs and Ems

syntactical SDs and EMs

lexico-syntactic SDs

units of syntagmatic semasiology

figures of contrast

Personification

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of the dictionary and contextual meanings

 

paradigmatic semasiology

figures of quality

Hyperbole

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of logical and nominative meanings

lexical SDs

paradigmatic semasiology

figures of quantity

Understatement/

meiosis

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of logical and nominative meanings

lexical SDs

paradigmatic semasiology

figures of quantity

Litotes

syntactical SDs and EMs

lexico-syntactic SDs

-

Periphrasis

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of logical and nominative meanings

lexico-syntactic SDs

-

Euphemism

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of logical and nominative meanings

   

Irony

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of the dictionary and contextual meanings

lexical SDs

paradigmatic semasiology

figures of quality

Pun

lexical SDs and Ems

based on the interaction of primary and derivative logical meanings

lexical SDs

units of syntagmatic semasiology

figures of inequality

 

Let’s revise all material (Table 2)

Table of SD and EM. Table  -2

Sentences

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Комментарии

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I like your post. It can be used as visual aids. Very useful tables.

P.S. As for examples in the sentences. I don’t agree with you according to the 2 sentence: there is no any comparison “I hope they like me” (Я надеюсь, что нравлюсь им).
Sentences 3: “blindingly bright” (colours) is an epithet, not a metaphor; the verb “hurt” refers to the noun “a shirt” (not to the noun “colours”): “a shirt hurt the eyes to look at it”.
In the 4 sentence I also don’t see any lexical SDs and EMs (“a room full of smoke and drink and …” is not a metaphor).
Sentence 5, 38: As I know, litotes and antithesis is a syntactical SDs and EMs. But you are writing about lexical ones.
Sentence 20: I don’t know exactly, but “pride fought against” – I think it’s a personification, or maybe a metaphor? But if you think that it’s periphrasis, what is the real meaning? And there is also an epithet “foolish” (pride) in this sentence.
Sentence 24: “a strange clicking” (noise) is an epithet.
Sentence 26: “the canes went through them” is a metaphor.
Sentence 27: “his thin figure and long limbs” is a synecdoche.
Sentences 39: “little silvery” (bells) – I don’t consider it as an epithet, because it’s not an unusual description of a phenomenon. “little silvery bells tinkled in my ears” is a metaphor.
Sentences 40: (I heard) “the crack of a rifle”, I think, is a synecdoche. Because the man heard how someone fired a rifle.
Sentences 47: “awfully cheeky”,I think, is an oxymoron.
0
Great job, Andrey and Irina
Andrey, I liked your tables a lot. I hope you revised and understood a lot while working on these tables.
Irina, you are very helpful in commenting on the examples. To decide on a SD being a metaphor or a personification you should aswer the following question - can only a person (i.e. human being) do it? If you answer 'yes' - it is personification. Anyway, you won't be mistaken calling a personification a metaphor.
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I see. Thank you a lot)
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