simile personification metaphor metonymy

Alenova_Zarema 2013 M02 16

We have studied four figures of speech and noticed that, according to the classification of  Galperin, this figures relate to one and the same group: Lexical SDs and Ems, and...

We have studied four figures of speech and noticed that, according to the classification of  Galperin, this figures relate to one and the same group: Lexical SDs and Ems, and Kukharenko'sParadigmatic semasiology units.

Please, fulfill this task! Let's take a look at how metaphor, simile, metonymy, and personification show up in the following poem. But If you have forgotten how to distinguish a particular figure of speech from the others, you can find definition of each with examples below. (The poem is from

The Writer

In her room at the prow of the house
Where light breaks and the windows are tossed with linden,
My daughter is writing a story.

I pause in the stairwell, hearing
From her shut door a commotion of typewriter-keys
Like a chain hauled over a gunwale.

Young as she is, the stuff
Of her life is a great cargo, and some of it heavy:
I wish her a lucky passage.

But now it is she who pauses,
As if to reject my thought and its easy figure.
A stillness greatens, in which

The whole house seems to be thinking,
And then she is at it again with a bunched clamor
Of strokes, and again is silent.

I remember the dazed starling
Which was trapped in that very room, two years ago;
How we stole in, lifted a sash

And retreated, not to affright it;
And how for a helpless hour, through the crack of the door,
We watched the sleek, wild, dark

And iridescent creature
Batter against the brilliance, drop like a glove
To the hard floor, or the desk-top,

And wait then, humped and bloody,
For the wits to try it again; and how are spirits
Rose when, suddenly sure,

It lifted off from a chair-back,
Beating a smooth course for the right window
And clearing the sill of the world.

It is always a matter, my darling,
Of life or death, as I had forgotten. I wish
What I wished you before, but harder.

—Richard Wilbur


metaphor is a figure of speech in which a comparison is made between two unlike things. For example:

"Nature's first green is gold"
The tenor "first green" is compared to the vehicle "gold." The connotations of "gold" are scarce, precious, and valuable. This helps us see that, for the speaker, the first signs of life in spring are scarce, precious, and valuable.

simile is an explicit comparison between two unlike things that uses "like," "as," "seems," or "resembles" to make the comparison. For example:

"I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats on high oe'r vales and hills."

Metonymy is a figure of speech in which some significant aspect or associated detail of an experience or object is used to represent the whole experience or object. It is always a comparison between whole and part, not two disparate wholes. For example:

"For oft when on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood,
They flash upon the inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude;
And then my heart with pleasure fills,
And dances with the daffodils."

—William Wordsworth, "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud"

Personification is a figure of speech that endows animals, ideas, abstractions, and inanimate objects with human characteristics. For example:

"Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness
Close bosom friend of the maturing sun;"

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