Periphrasis- the use of a more or less complicated syntactical structure instead of one word to convey a purely individual perception of the described object.
For instance: Michael Jackson was called the King of Pop.
-Logical, i.e synonymous phrases
F.e. She was still fat after childbirth; the destroyer of her figure( the child) sat at the head of the table.
- Figurative: in fact phrase- metonymies and phrase- metaphors
F.e. The hospital was crowded with the surgically interesting products of the fighting in Africa ( extended metonymy for the wounded)
Understatement- the exaggeration of smallness. The mechanism of understatement creation and functions is identical with that of hyperbole. It does not signify the actual state of affairs, but present the object through the emotionally coloured perception of the speaker to underline its insignificance.
Ex: She was so thin she could have hidden, behind a parking number.
Hyperbole- a deliberate exaggeration of an object feature to such a degree that will show its utter absurdity.
Ex: She was a giant of a woman.
Euphemism - a variety of periphrases,word/phrase used to replace an unpleasant or tabooed word by a conventionally more acceptable, mild or less straightforward one
Ex: to pass away, to be no more, to join the majority ( i.e to die)