This week we discussed syntactical SDs and EMs. I want to describe some of them.
Antithesis is a rhetorical device in which two opposite ideas are put together in a sentence to achieve a contrasting effect.
Antithesis emphasizes the idea of contrast by parallel structures of the contrasted phrases or clauses, i.e. the structures of phrases and clauses are similar in order to draw the attention of the listeners or readers.
“Setting foot on the moon may be a small step for a man but a giant step for mankind.”
The use of contrasting ideas, “a small step” and “a giant step”, in the sentence above emphasizes the significance of one of the biggest landmarks of human history.
And other examples:
· Man proposes, God disposes.
· Love is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing.
· Speech is silver, but silence is gold.
· Money is the root of all evils: poverty is the fruit of all goodness.
Chiasmus is a rhetorical device in which two or more clauses are balanced against each other by the reversal of their structures in order to produce an artistic effect.
Examples of chiasmus:
· Never let a Fool Kiss You or a Kiss Fool You.
· I flee who chases me, and chase who flees me. (Ovid)
· Friendly Americans win American friends. (United States Travel Service, 1963)
Ellipsis – a deliberate omission of at least one member of a sentence. The missing parts are either present in the context or implied by the situation.
Examples of ellipsis:
· "Some people go to priests; others to poetry; I to my friends." (Virginia Woolf)
· "Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools, because they have to say something." (Plato)