Now I want to give a review of such SDs as hyperbole, understatement, euphemism and periphrasis.
Hyperbole is a figure of speech that uses an exaggerated or extravagant statement to create a strong emotional response. As a figure of speech it is not intended to be taken literally. Hyperbole is frequently used for humour. Examples of hyperbole are:
1) They ran like greased lightning.
2) He's got tons of money.
3) I have told you a million times not to lie!
An understatement is a figure of speech employed by writers or speakers to intentionally make a situation seem less important than it really is.
Common Examples of Understatement:
1) It is an understatement to say “He is not too thin” while describing an obese person.
2) It is an understatement to say “It rained a bit more than usual” while describing an area being flooded after a heavy rain fall.
3) It is an understatement to say “It was O.K.” when a topper was asked about his result.
Euphemism is an idiomatic expression which loses its literal meanings and refers to something else in order to hide its unpleasantness. For example, “kick the bucket” is a euphemism that describes the death of a person. In addition, many organizations use the term “downsizing” for the distressing act of “firing” its employees.
Euphemism depends largely on the social context of the speakers and writers where they feel the need to replace certain words which may prove embarrassing for particular listeners or readers in a particular situation.
Euphemism is frequently used in everyday life. Let us look at some common euphemism examples:
1) You are becoming a little thin on top (bald).
2) Our teacher is in the family way (pregnant).
3) He is always tired and emotional (drunk).
Periphrasis is a stylistic device that consists in the renaming of an object by a phrase that brings out some particular feature of it. Longer-phrase is used instead of a shorter one.
Examples of periphrasis:
1) the victor lord, the leader of hosts (king)
2) the play of swords(battle)
3) a shield-bearer(warrior)
4) the cap and gown (student)
5) my better half (my wife)
Thanks for attention! I hope this information will be useful.