Metaphor,Simile,Pesonifcation and Metonymy
According to I.R.Galperin,the term 'metaphor', as the etymology of the word reveals, means transference of some quality from one object to another.Also the term has been known to denote the transference of meaning from one word to another.
A metaphor states A is B
A figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between Two unlike things that actually have something in common. A metaphor expresses the unfamiliar (the tenor) in terms of the familiar (the vehicle).When Neil Young sings, "Love is a rose", "rose" is a vehicle for "love",the tenor.
One of the prominent examples of a metaphor in English literature is the All the world's stage monologue from As you like it:
All the world's stage,
And all the men and women merely players,
They have their exits and their entrances
Also here you can find metaphor examples http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=NS-2Tm3OzPQ#!
Metaphors classified according to its degree and unexpectedness: trite(dead) and geniune(original). Dead metaphors are fixed in dictionaries. they often sound banal like cliches:
to burn with desire
a flight of imagination
Original metaphors are not registered in dictionaries. they are created by the speaker's/writer's imagination and sond fresh and unexpected
Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.
Metaphors are used to help us understand the unknown, because we use what we know in comparison with something we don't know to get a better understanding of the unknown.
A simile is a figure of speech that directly compares two different things, usually by employing the words "like" or "as".A simile differs from a metaphor in that the latter compares two unlike things by saying that the one thing is the other thing.
A simile states A is like B
Here you can find simile in songs) http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=sWDSxmMo9Z0#!
Semantically similies split into:
"She dealt with moral problems as a cleaver deals with meat."
(James Joyce, "The Boarding House")
"Good coffee is like friendship: rich and warm and strong."
(slogan of Pan-American Coffee Bureau)
"Life is like an onion: You peel it off one layer at a time, and sometimes you weep."
Personification is giving human traits (qualities, feelings, action, or characteristics) to non-living objects (things, colors, qualities, or ideas).
For example: The window winked at me. The verb, wink, is a human action. A window is a non-living object.
Personification is when you assign the qualities of a person to something that isn't human or, in some cases, to something that isn't even alive. There are many reasons for using personification. It can be used as a method of describing something so that others can understand. It can be used to emphasize a point. It is a commonly favored literary tool, and you may in fact use personification without even knowing it.
The stars danced playfully in the moonlit sky.
The run down house appeared depressed.
Her life passed her by.
The sun glared down at me from the sky.
The moon winked at me through the clouds above.
A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated (such as "crown" for "royalty").
The Difference Between Metaphor and Metonymy
"Metaphor creates the relation between its objects, while metonymy presupposes that relation."
(Hugh Bredin, "Metonymy." Poetics Today, 1984)
"Metonymy and metaphor also have fundamentally different functions. Metonymy is about referring: a method of naming or identifying something by mentioning something else which is a component part or symbolically linked. In contrast, metaphor is about understanding and interpretation: it is a means to understand or explain one phenomenon by describing it in terms of another."
(Murray Knowles and Rosamund Moon, Introducing Metaphor. Routledge, 2006)
"If metaphor works by transposing qualities from one plane of reality to another, metonymy works by associating meanings within the same plane. . . . The representation of reality inevitably involves a metonym: we choose a part of 'reality' to stand for the whole. The urban settings of television crime serials are metonyms--a photographed street is not meant to stand for the street itself, but as a metonym of a particular type of city life--inner-city squalor, suburban respectability, or city-centre sophistication."
(John Fiske, Introduction to Communication Studies, 2nd ed. Routledge, 1992)
The examples below include both the metonymy and the possible words for which the metonymy would fill in:
- Crown - in place of a royal person
- The White House - in place of the President or others who work there
- The White House asked the television networks for air time on Monday night.
- The suits - in place of business people
- Dish - for an entire plate of food
- Cup - for a mug
- The Pentagon - to refer to the staff
- The restaurant - to refer to the staff
A rhetorical term for the substitution of a title, epithet, or descriptive phrase for a proper name (or of a personal name for a common name) to designate a member of a group or class.
Synecdoche (pron.: /sɪˈnɛkdəkiː/, si-nek-də-kee; from Greek synekdoche (συνεκδοχή), meaning "simultaneous understanding") is a figure of speech in which a term for a part of something is used to refer to the whole of something, or vice-versa.
There are several different forms of synecdoche examples including:
A synecdoche may use part of something to represent the entire whole.
It may use an entire whole thing to represent a part of it.
It can use a word or phrase as a class that will express less or more than the word or phrase actually means.
It may use a group of things that refer to a larger group or use a large group to refer to a smaller group.
A synecdoche may also refer to an object by the material it is made from or refer to the contents in a container by the name of the container.
Synecdoche vs Metonymy
It is easy to confuse synecdoche and metonymy because they both use a word or phrase to represent something else. They could also both be considered metaphors because the word or words used are not taken literally.
A synecdoche uses part for the whole or the whole for a part.
A metonymy is a substitution where a word or phrase is used in place of another word or phrase. A good example is the phrase “The pen is mightier than the sword.” The word “pen” substitutes for written work, and the word “sword” substitutes for violence or warfare.
* "The world treated him badly."
The whole world did not treat him badly only a part. - The whole is used as the part
* "Twenty sails came into the harbor."
Meaning twenty ships came into the harbor. - A part is used for the whole