Today I would like to make a generalization to a large section.
Stylistic devices-It is a conscious and intentional intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic property of a language unit (neutral or expressive) promoted to a generalized status and thus becoming a generative model.
Expressive means-Now it should be possible to define the notion of expressive means. The expressive means of a language are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms which exist in language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical and/or emotional intensification of the utterance.
Simile- a kind of comparison in which two things are compared because they have something in common though they are in all other respects different. A simile states that a is like/as. Each simile consists of the following three components: 1) the thing which is compared, called the tenor; 2) the thing with which it is compared, called the vehicle; 3) link-words, such as like, as, as though, as like, such as, as … as, as if, seem. She walks like an angel. / I wandered lonely as a cloud. (Wordsworth)- According to I. R. Galperin - lexical SDs and EMs V. A. Kukharenko it is lexico-syntactic SDs , according to Yu. M. Skrebnev’s classification- units of syntagmatic semasiology, figures of identity
Metaphor- a comparison between two things which are basically quite different without using the words like or as. While a simile only says that one thing is like another, a metaphor says that one thing is another. Life’s but a walking shadow ... (Shakespeare Macbeth). According to I. R. Galperin-lexical SDs and EMs. V. A. Kukharenko-lexical SDs .Yu. M. Skrebnev -figures of quality, paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units
Metonymy- is a word or phrase that is used to stand in for another word. Sometimes a metonymy is chosen because it is a well-known characteristic of the word. "He writes a fine hand." - This means that the person writes neatly or has good handwriting. According to I. R. Galperin -lexical SDs and EMs.V. A. Kukharenko -lexical SDs. Yu. M. Skrebnev - paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units.figures of quality
Synecdoche- a type of trope, which is a figure of speech. When used in literature, a synecdoche will add to the visual imagery of the passage and enhance the reader’s experience. " white-collar criminals". I. R. Galperin- lexical SDs and EMs . Yu. M. Skrebnev - paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units figures of quality
Antonomasia- a rhetorical for the substitution of a title, epithet, or descriptive phrase for a proper name to designate a member of a group or class. "The Mahatma" for Mohandas Gandhi. I. R. Galperin- lexical SDs and EMs . Yu. M. Skrebnev -figures of quality paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units
Personification- a kind of metaphor in which animals, plants, inanimate objects or abstract ideas are represented as if they were human beings and possessed human qualities. Justice is blind. Necessity is the mother of invention. I. R. Galperin- lexical SDs and EMs. Yu. M. Skrebnev -paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units.figures of quality
Hyperbole- It is purpose is to emphasize something or to produce a humorous effect. I loved Ophelia: forty thousand brothers / Could not, with all their quantity of love / Make up my sum. According to I. R. Galperin lexical SDs and EMs.V. A. Kukharenko -lexical SDs Yu. M. Skrebnev paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units.figures of quantity.
Understatement- is a figure of speech in which there is a contrast between the description and reality. As such, understatement can be used to reflect modesty, sarcasm, derogatory or complimentary tone
Irony- saying the opposite of what you actually mean. Teacher: “You are absolutely the best class I’ve ever had.” Actual meaning: “the worst class”. According to I. R. Galperin - lexical SDs and EMs. V. A. Kukharenko -lexical SDs .Yu. M. Skrebnev - paradigmatic semasiology (onomasiology) units.figures of quantity
Oxymoron- a combination of contradictory words. “O hateful love! O loving hate!” / “I burn and freeze like ice.” (Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet). According to I. R. Galperin- lexical SDs and EMs. V. A. Kukharenko - lexical SDs .Yu. M. Skrebnev - units of syntagmatic semasiology (onomasiology).figures of contrast
Epithet- A rhetorical term for an adjective (or adjective phrase) used to characterize a person or thing. Sitting by his side, I watched the peaceful dawn. I. R. Galperin -lexical SDs and EMs
V. A. Kukharenko -lexical SDs .
Pun -a play on words that have a similar sound but different meanings. Where do you find giant snails? On the ends of giants’ fingers. I. R. Galperin lexical SDs and EMs. V. A. Kukharenko -lexical SDs .Yu. M. Skrebnev - units of syntagmatic semasiology (onomasiology) figures of inequality
Zeugma- the use of one word in the same grammatical but different semantic relations: on one hand literal, and on the other, transferred, used for humorous effect. He took his hat and his leave. (Ch. Dickens). I. R. Galperin -lexical SDs and EMs. V. A. Kukharenko- lexical SDs.Yu. M. Skrebnev -units of syntagmatic semasiology (onomasiology).figures of inequality